3. The geopolitical situation in the world has led to a steady increase in migration flows between several countries and within different regions. Moving to Europe is still a dream for many migrants from southern countries (mainly African and Mediterranean) and the old continent remains the main destination of migratory routes.
The challenge to be faced is to find a way for promoting a proactive answer to manage and also to take the advantage of the opportunities brought by this phenomenon, whose increasing significance can be summarized in a few statistics: in the fourth quarter of the year 2014 the growth in the total number of applicants for international protection in the EU+ continued, rising 10% to over 210.000 applicants1 and increasing the high of 188.395 applicants set by the third quarter of 20142. In the 2014, there were more than 660.000 applicants for international protection in the EU+, a 42% increase when compared to the 2013. In the fourth quarter of the 2014 the ranking of the main countries of destination changed compared to the previous one and Germany, Hungary, Italy and Sweden were the main countries of destination, receiving 64 % of all asylum applicants registered in the EU+. Significantly higher numbers of applicants were recorded also in Spain (+515; +35 %).
In 2014 overall, Germany, Sweden, Italy and France were the main countries of destination, receiving the 62% of all asylum applicants registered in the EU+. The composition of the largest groups of asylum applicants registered in the EU+ consisted of citizens from Syria followed by Western Balkans countries, Eritrea, Afghanistan and Pakistan3. In 2013, 435.760 persons applied for international protection in the EU28, representing the highest number and the sharpest year-to-year growth (+30 % compared to 2012) since EU-level data collection began in 20084.
The high number of asylum seekers arrives in Southern European countries (mainly on cross-border Mediterranean countries) as a consequence of the political instability in the areas of crisis in the Middle East and in the region of the Horn of Africa, draws the attention to the different emergency and hosting models adopted in the EU countries.
Despite the effort of a standardizing policy at European level, practices and procedures adopted in every European country, in fact, may vary not only on reception conditions for asylum seekers but also on rates and criteria for accepting requests for protection. Conditions and procedures that changes dramatically from country to country. All this happens despite the intention of the European legislator though the Dublin Regulation, which originally aimed to create an area with an identical level of protection. Nowadays the only common element is, however, the fact that who gets the international protection in a European country does not have the opportunity to work regularly in another EU member State.
This means that the state that is detected by the Dublin system as competent to examine the request will be then also the State in which the person must remain once obtained the protection. This does not take account of the aspirations of the individual subjects, nor of their family/cultural bonds with some specific European countries, nor of the real prospects of finding employment in the different European areas, and following the different employment opportunities. In this way countries such as Malta, Italy, Spain, Greece, Germany, Sweden, are considered as homogeneous contexts. In reality, for those who received international protection in a Mediterranean country, this often leads to escapes in countries where the friendly and family networks are stronger.
An example of one of the main migration corridors within Europe is the route from Italy or Spain to Germany, which will be analyzed and tested in depth in the project. Considering that main departure points are southern Mediterranean countries and Middle East, the project needs to have a better understanding on key migrant routes from these countries to Italy, Spain and Germany and how these countries are linked through corridors for these flows. The outflows within Europe of these people cannot be guaranteed in legal terms, turning them into "ghost citizens". While the social integration of migrants passes through work and financial inclusion, thus, getaways and poor reception still represent a fracture in the European protection system, which is more and more showing its weak points.
In this framework it becomes difficult to facilitate a smooth social integration, as well as to take advantage of the professional skills of migrants. Foreign people might contribute with their skills or un-skilled profiles to help in professionalism today not covered (services, artisans, etc.). One of the options in place for promoting the job placement, the self employment by the creation of micro enterprises (including businesses co-managed by Beneficiaries of International Protection and Europeans Citizens) and the insertion of beneficiaries in existing local enterprises, will rely upon the expertise of the beneficiaries that represent scarce resources in the European labor market and activities destined to disappear.
This win-win approach will help the development of new micro businesses but it will also facilitate the inclusion of beneficiaries in local enterprises that are facing employment crisis or issues related to generational succession. A study on the opportunities for micro-credit toward beneficiaries of international protection funded by the European Fund for Refugees (2009-Action 1.B) and conducted by the Associazione Microfinanza e Sviluppo Onlus and the International Organization for Migration, in 2011, showed that about 42% of the refugees could get great benefits from empowerment and training actions.
This group was equally divided in two groups having the same size: a first one who, despite having a good or even average level of resources in terms of cultural capital, professional and social skills, is in need to be helped to better identify goals to be achieved (33%) and a second group (9%) consists of those who have clearly identified their goals, but they need to be helped to strengthen their resources (social networks, professional skills and economic capital).
This experience allows to have a better understanding of people “disoriented” (group one) and “potential clients” (group two). If for disoriented people an orientation activity was needed, for potential clients efforts to deploy were less intensive. Nevertheless disoriented people might be considered too as “potential clients” and adapted and customized empowerment actions (“Pre-activities”) could help them in developing their dreams. In the absence of centers of connection between supply and demand, the matching between who offers jobs and refugees seeking jobs passes mostly through informal ethnic networks and personal relations.
Despite the fact that personal relations and informal ethnic networks might be considered a good and efficient opportunity, we consider that it is in part a loss of opportunity to identify important skills and cultural background of the individual. In Italy and Spain, such kind of services is weak or totally inexistent for this target of people. This situation creates, in one hand, an ineffective and problematic social integration, and on the other hand, despite Dublin Directive, it directs the most of internal migration flows toward the countries of Northern Europe.
GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The overall objective of the project is to promote the well being of persons benefiting from international protection by implementing more adapted policies and procedures at EU Level.
On part of the specific objectives, the project aims at the social integration of beneficiaries by:
1) To contribute to the improvement of international protection seekers policies and reception procedures within hosting countries and to support homogenous labor inclusion best practices.
2) To facilitate the improvement of public and private actors' capabilities to identify, understand and develop policies and tools adequate to vulnerable persons benefiting from international protection in some selected EU territories as to promote their access into the labor market by enhancing global value chain labor opportunities.
3) To create the conditions for the beneficiaries to have the opportunity to work in various European countries, while remaining in the country that granted international protection.
5. DELIVERABLES and EXPECTED RESULTS
6. EXPECTED IMPACT
5. / 6. The project will be structured into four main phases that correspond to the four expected results to be achieved during two years project.
a) Performing a refugees and persons benefiting from subsidiary protection status routing map study so as to detect opportunities and threats in the development of job opportunities The direct beneficiaries of this result will be the European partners of the project in charge of the technical assistance activities that will better target job-assistance services for refugees by acquiring a deep understanding of beneficiaries’ migration projects and formal and informal networks, tools and procedures in place within the European Union. To this purpose the study is seen as a key starting point for having a better understanding on procedures and services in place in the different EU regions and to have a clearer picture on policies and procedures promoted at local level. According to project objectives, project activities should be harmonized (EU Members States have different immigration systems and also different is the methodology used) and for that the study is needed as a key reference and to align partners with the same level of knowledge and updated data. The indirect beneficiaries will be the National / Regional systems for reception of refugees (such as the Italian or SPRAR) and other European Institutions that will benefit freely of this information for better tailoring their social inclusion services. The long-term impact of the study is to start a process of dialogue between the European institutions on the coordination of educational systems and professional assistance services oriented to the beneficiaries of the project. Depth knowledge of the internal migratory routes of refugees and persons benefiting from international protection and the mapping of migrant communities in Europe can help strengthen the cooperation of the countries of first-arrival and final-destination of these people through: - Alignment of common pathways of professional training and job placement services; - Formal recognition of skills and educational qualifications of the beneficiaries. National / Regional systems of reception of refugees will thus better recognize the opportunities to enhance transnational interventions for labor and social integration of refugees. The short-medium impact of this result will be a clearer vision of the migration routes within the EU and a deep insight on the needs expressed by the refugees in terms of job assistance. This will increase effective and tailor-made services offered by the project to the beneficiaries. Moreover, in the context of the creation of decentralized and Regional Job Hubs, will be strengthened the relationships with particular stakeholders (e.g. specific migrant communities) that have a significant presence in more than one of the participating European countries.
b) Training and support in their job-design and business start-up to a group of persons benefiting from international protection in the three target countries
The beneficiaries of this result are selected persons benefiting from international protection that can get great benefits from empowerment and training actions.
These subjects can be divided into two groups, both including "pre-actives" beneficiaries that will contribute to better orientate their expectations: those who, despite having a good or even average level of resources in terms of cultural capital, professional and social skills, nevertheless need to be helped to better identify their goals, “disoriented”.
Those who have clearly identified their goals, but who are in need to be helped to strengthen their skills and tools (social networks, professional skills and economic capital), or the “potential clients” group. At the end of the action 170 beneficiaries will be involved into project activities and will benefit of training and mentoring actions.
The impact in the short / medium term will be the empowerment of beneficiaries who have strong professional and business potential resources but who need to be helped to better identify their goals and to properly valorize their skills in the European labor market. The impact in the long term will be a more effective social integration of beneficiaries and greater awareness of them on their possibility of integration into the European context.